Yuav Ua Li Cas Nrhiav Cov Kev Tsim Nyog rau Z nrog Z-Rooj

Los ntawm Deborah J. Rumsey

ntsiav tshuaj ntsuab me me k8

Koj tuaj yeem siv lub NROG -koj kom pom tag nrho cov txheej txheem ntawm tsawg-dua qhov tshwm sim rau ntau qhov ntawm nrog -values. Txhawm rau siv NROG- lub rooj nrhiav qhov tshwm sim rau a cov naj npawb ua piv txwv nrog tus qauv qub ( NROG- ) kev faib khoom, ua cov hauv qab no:



  1. Mus rau kab uas sawv cev rau ntawm cov lej thiab thawj tus lej tom qab qov xaus (tus lej feem kaum) ntawm koj nrog -value.



  2. Mus rau kem uas sawv cev rau tus lej thib ob tom qab lub qov xaus (tus lej pua pua) ntawm koj nrog -value.

  3. Kev tshuam ntawm kab thiab kem los ntawm Ruam 1 thiab 2.



    Qhov tshwm sim no sawv cev p ( NROG < nrog ), qhov tshwm sim uas cov Random sib txawv NROG yog tsawg dua li tus nqi nrog (los yog qhov feem pua ​​ntawm nrog -nyob rau hauv uas tsawg dua qhov muab nrog tus nqi).

    daim ntawv teev zaub mov noj

Piv txwv li, xav tias koj xav nrhiav p ( NROG <2.13). Using the NROG -tus hauv qab no, nrhiav kab rau 2.1 thiab kem rau 0.03. Kev tshuam ntawm kab ntawd thiab kem nrhiav qhov tshwm sim: 0.9834. Yog li no p ( NROG <2.13) = 0.9834.

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duab1.jpg



Kev ceeb toom tias thaj chaw tag nrho hauv ib qho kev nkhaus ib txwm (suav nrog kev ncaj ib txwm nkhaus) yog 1, nws ua raws ntawd p ( NROG <2.13) + p ( NROG > 2.13) = 1. Yog li ntawd, p ( NROG > 2.13) = 1 - p ( NROG <2.13) which equals 1 – 0.9834 which equals 0.0166.

cov tshuaj tua kab mob tso zis

Piv txwv koj xav nrhiav p ( NROG <–2.13). You find the row for –2.1 and the column for 0.03. Intersect the row and column and you find 0.0166; that means p ( NROG <–2.13)=0.0166. Observe that this happens to equal p ( NROG > +2.13) .Qhov laj thawj rau qhov no yog 'vim tias qhov faib tawm ib txwm yog zoo ib yam. Yog li tus Tsov tus tw ntawm nkhaus hauv qab –2.13 sawv cev p ( NROG <–2.13) looks exactly like the tail above 2.13 representing p ( NROG > +2.13).